evolutionary change in human-altered environments

Research Project | 2016

Evolutionary Change in Human-Altered Environments

evolutionary change in human-altered environments
The journal Molecular Ecology published the papers presented by more than 40 prominent biologists at the summit in its January 3, 2008 Special Issue.

CTR and the Institute of Environment and Sustainability sponsored an international summit in February 2007 to discuss the effects of human activity on climate change, habitat degradation, captive breeding and exploitation, and invasive species and pathogens.

With the global human population reaching seven billion in 2011, human impacts are causing changes in the evolutionary processes underlying and maintaining diversity. The average rate of loss for animal and plant populations and their habitats is estimated to be 1% annually, with two-thirds of the world’s terrestrial land area now devoted directly to supporting human populations, either through agriculture, fisheries, urbanization, or infrastructure. As a consequence of these impacts, we are witnessing a global, but unplanned, evolutionary experiment with the biotic diversity of the planet. Growing empirical evidence indicates that human-induced evolutionary changes impact every corner of the globe. Such changes are occurring rapidly, even at the level of a human lifespan, bear huge economical costs and pose serious threats to both humans and the biodiversity of the planet. Evolutionary phenomena, such as industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia) — a classical example of rapid evolution driven by humans once considered atypical — are now becoming commonplace. The Center for Tropical Research is leading several research efforts to understand how humans are changing evolutionary processes.

Related Publications

How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions

Larison, B.; Harrigan, R. J.; Thomassen, H.; Rubenstein, D. I.; Chan-Golston, A. M.; Li, E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2015 | Royal Society Open Science 2

Safeguarding biodiversity: what is perceived as working according to the conservation community?

Chapman, C. A.; DeLuycker, A.; Reyna-Hurtado, R. A.; Serio-Silva, J. C.; Smith, T. B.; Strier, K. B.; Goldberg, T. L.

Published Work | 2014 | Oryx 50(2), 302-307

Prescriptive evolution to conserve and manage biodiversity

Smith, T.B; Kinnison, M.; Strauss, S.; Fuller, T.; Scott, P.

Published Work | 2014 | Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 45, 1.1–1.22

Coevolutionary patterns and diversification of avian malaria parasites in African Sunbirds (Family Nectariniidae)

Lauron, E. J.; Loiseau, C.; Bowie, R. C.; Spicer, G. S.; Smith, T. B.; Melo, M.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2014 | Parasitology 142(5), 635-647

Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

Carroll, S. P.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Kinnison, M. T.; Bergstrom, C. T.; Denison, R. F.; Gluckman, P.; Smith, T. B.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tabashnik, B. E.

Published Work | 2014 | Science 346(6207)

A continental risk assessment of West Nile virus under climate change

Harrigan, R. J.; Thomassen, H.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Global Change Biology 2014, 20 (8), 2417–2425

Metapopulation dynamics enable persistence of Influenza A, including A/H5N1, in poultry

Hosseini, P. R.; Fuller, T.; Harrigan, R.; Zhao, D.; Arriola, C. S.; Gonzales, A.; Miller, M. J.; Xiao, X.; Smith, T. B.; Holland Jones, J.; Daszak, P.

Published Work | 2014 | PLoS ONE 8(12)

Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human Monkeypox in response to climate change in Central Africa

Thomassen, H. A.; Fuller, T. L.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Shiplacoff, J. A.; Mulembakani, P. M.; Blumberg, S.; Johnston, S. C.; Kisalu, N. K.; Kinkela, T. L.; Fair, J. N.; Wolfe, N. D.; Shongo, R. L.; LeBreton, M.; Meyer, H.; Wright, L. L.; Muyembe, J.; Buermann, W.; Okitolonda, E.; Hensley, L. E.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Smith, T. B.; Rimoin, A. W.

Published Work | 2013 | PLoS ONE 8(7)

Predicting bird song from space

Smith, T. B.; Harrigan, R. J.; Kirschel, A. N.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S.; Blumstein, D. T.; de Kort, S. R.; Slabbekoorn, H.

Published Work | 2013 | Evolutionary Applications 6(6), 865–874

The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research

Fuller, T.; Bensch, S.; Muller, I.; Novembre, J.; Perez-Tris, J.; Ricklefs, R. E.; Smith, T. B.; Waldenstrom, J.

Published Work | 2012 | EcoHealth 9, 80–88

Host and habitat specialization of avian malaria in Africa

Loiseau, C.; Harrigan, R. J.; Robert, A.; Bowie, R. C.; Thomassen, H. A.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Molecular Ecology 21(2), 431–441

Evolutionary principles and their practical application

Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.; Day, T.; Smith, T. B.; Fitt, G.; Bergstrom, C.; Oakeshott, J.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Zalucki, M.; Southerton, S.; Sih, A.; Denison, R. F.; Carroll, S. P.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolutionary Application 4(2), 159–183

Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard.

Marnocha, E.; Pollinger, J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolutionary Applications 4(2), 388–396

Mapping evolutionary process: a multi-taxa approach to conservation prioritization

Thomassen, H. A.; Fuller, T.; Buermann, W.; Milá, B.; Kieswetter, C.; Jarrín-V, P.; Cameron, S. E.; Mason, E.; Schweizer, R.; Schlunegger, J.; Chan, J.; Wang, O.; Peralvo, M.; Schneider, C. J.; Graham, C. H.; Pollinger, J. P.; Saatchi, S.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolutionary Applications 4(2), 397–413

Economic conditions predict prevalence of West Nile virus

Harrigan, R. J.; Thomassen, H. A.; Buermann, W.; Cummings, R. F.; Kahn, M. E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | PLoS ONE 5(11)

Using remote sensing to map the risk of human monkeypox virus in the Congo Basin

Fuller, T. H.; Thomassen, H. A.; Mulembakani, P. M.; Johnston, S. S.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Kisalu, N. K.; Lutete, T. K.; Blumberg, S.; Fair, J. N.; Wolfe, N. D.; Shongo, R. L.; Formenty, P.; Meyer, H.; Wright, L. L.; Muhembe, J.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S. S.; Okitolonda, E.; Hensley, L.; Smith, T. B.; Rimoin, A. W.

Published Work | 2010 | EcoHealth 8(1), 14-25

Projected changes in elevational distribution and flight performance of montane neotropical hummingbirds in response to climate change

Buermann, W.; Chaves, J. A.; Dudley, R.; Mcguire, J. A.; Smith, T. B.; Altshuler, D. L.

Published Work | 2010 | Global Change Biology 17(4), 1671–1680

Human impacts flatten rainforest-savanna gradient and reduce adaptive diversity in a rainforest bird

Freedman, A. H.; Buermann, W.; Mitchard, E. T.; DeFries, R. S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | PLoS ONE 5(9)

Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats

Chasar, A.; Loiseau, C.; Valkiūnas, G.; Iezhova, T.; Smith, T. B.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2009 | Molecular Ecology 18(19), 4121–4133

Character displacement of song and morphology in African tinkerbirds

Kirschel, A. N.; Blumstein, D. T.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 8256–8261

Modeling the effects of anthropogenic habitat change on savanna snake invasions into African rainforest

Freedman, A. H.; Buermann, W.; LeBreton, M.; Chirio, L.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2008 | Conservation Biology 23(1), 81-92

The importance of conserving evolutionary processes

Smith, T. B.; Grether, G.

Published Work | 2008

Preface to the special issue: Evolutionary change in human-altered environments

Smith, T. B.; Bernatchez, L.

Published Work | 2007 | Molecular Ecology 17(1), 1–8

Evolutionary consequences of human disturbance in a rainforest bird species from Central Africa

Smith, T. B.; Mila, B.; Grether, G. F.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Sepil, I.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S.; Pollinger, J. P.

Published Work | 2007 | Molecular Ecology 17(1), 58–71

Hunting of mammals reduced seed removal and dispersal of the Afrotropical tree, Antrocaryon klaineanum (Anacardiaceae).

Wang, B. C.; Sork, V. L.; Leong, M. T.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2007 | Biotropica 39(3), 340–347

A southern California freeway is a physical and social barrier to gene flow in carnivores

Riley, S. P.; Pollinger, J. P.; Sauvajot, R. M.; York, E. C.; Bromley, C.; T. L.

Published Work | 2006 | Molecular Ecology 15(7), 1733–1741

Current and historical factors influencing patterns of species richness and turnover of birds in the Gulf of Guinea highlands.

Smith, C. H.; Smith, T. B.; Languy, M.

Published Work | 2005 | Journal of Biogeography 32, 1371–1384

Putting process on the map: Why ecotones are important for preserving biodiversity

Smith, T. B.; Saatchi, S.; Graham, C.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Spicer, G.

Published Work | 2005 | Phylogeny and Conservation

Conservation in conflict: The tale of two endangered species

Roemer, G. W.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2003 | Conservation Biology 17(5), 1251–1260.

Considering evolutionary processes in conservation biology

Crandall, K. A.; Bininda-Emonds, O. R.; Mace, G. M.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2000 | Trends in Ecology and Evolution 15(7), 290–295

Evolutionary consequences of extinctions in populations of a Hawaiian honeycreeper

Smith, T. B.; Freed, L. A.; Lepson, J. K.; Carothers, J. H.

Published Work | 1995 | Conservation Biology 9(1), 107–113

The preservation of process: the missing element of conservation programs

Smith, T. B.; Bruford, M. W.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 1993 | Biodiversity Letters 1(6), 164–167