Islands are challenged by managing solid and human waste. In many islands untreated human sewage is dumped directly into the ocean – with implications for human health, coral reefs, fisheries, and recreational activities. The small size and remote location of islands make it difficult to realize economies of scale, and their weak economy gives them limited access to capital to improve the systems. This is compounded by natural threats like sea level rise, salt water intrusion, and extreme weather events, including flooding and drought, which make management of waste increasingly difficult. This project will research government policies and public-private partnership models which can support innovation and efficiencies that improve waste management in islands.