Thomas B. Smith

Founding Director, Center for Tropical Research, Co-Executive Director, Congo Basin Institute

Professor, Center for Tropical Research and Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology


(310) 206-4712
tbsmith@ucla.edu

La Kretz Hall, Suite 300
Los Angeles, CA 90095-1496

Campus Mailcode: 149605

Bio

Thomas Smith is founder and director of the Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment, and is a professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology at UCLA. Smith has more than 30 years of experience working in the rain forests of Africa, Australia, Latin America, and Hawaii. He oversees a host of research projects and directs the research of a large number of graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on projects based in tropical countries worldwide.

A central focus of his research investigates how biodiversity is generated and maintained in tropical rain forests. Combining molecular genetics and field biology, he identified a new theory of how speciation occurs in rain forests. In a series of recent studies, he has shown that for a wide range of taxa in rain forests worldwide, the processes of diversification and speciation take place not only within “biodiversity hotspots” but also along environmental gradients or ecotones representing the transition from one habitat to another. The results of Smith’s research point to new and more effective ways of prioritizing regions for conservation. In recent years his research has also focused on studying evolution in human-altered environments, the ecology of disease, and developing new approaches for mapping adaptive variation in species to mitigate the effects of climate change.

Smith is a frequent consultant for conservation organizations. Working with the World Bank and international conservation organizations, he has helped implement conservation programs and establish new national parks in tropical countries. His research has been featured around the world in print, on the radio, and in film. Over the years, his research has been supported by major research grants from the National Science Foundation, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Agency for International Development, and the National Institutes of Health.

He has received more than a dozen academic honors for his research, including being a fellow of the California Academy of Sciences, the American Ornithologists’ Union, and the Zoological Society of London, and he was a Senior Fulbright Research Scholar. He is currently a member of the National Geographic Committee for Research and Exploration.

Fore more information see: www.ioes.ucla.edu/ctr

Projects

Dja Reserve

For the past 20 years, we have been conducting research in the Dja Biosphere Reserve and adjacent areas.  The Dja Biosphere Reserve is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in South Central Cameroon. The reserve comprises over 500,000 hectares, making it one of Central Africa’s largest protected areas. Our research began in 1993 with the...

Publications

Persistent impacts of West Nile virus on North American bird populations

George, T. L.; Harrigan, R. J.; LaManna, J. A.; DeSante, D. F.; Saracco, J. F.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2015 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112(46), 14290–14294


Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in a anole lizard

Bonneaud, C.; Marnocha, E.; Herrel, A.; Vanhooydonck, B.; Irschick, D. J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2015 | Functional Ecology 30, 235–243


Loss of sexual dimporhism is associated with loss of lekking behavior in the green manakin (Xenopipo holochora)

Ribeiro, R. D.; McCormack, J. E.; Álvarez, H. G.; Carrasco, L.; Grether, G. F.; Mena-Olmedo, P.; Sedano, R.; Smith, T. B.; Karubian, J.

Published Work | 2015 | Journal of Avian Biology 46(3), 307–314


How the zebra got its stripes: a problem with too many solutions

Larison, B.; Harrigan, R. J.; Thomassen, H.; Rubenstein, D. I.; Chan-Golston, A. M.; Li, E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2015 | Royal Society Open Science 2


Avian influenza surveillance in Central and West Africa, 2010-2014

Fuller, T. L.; Ducatez, M. F.; Njabo, K. Y.; Couancy-Hymann, E.; Chasar, T.; Aplogan, G. L.; Lao, S.; Awoume, F.; Tehou, A.; Langeois, Q.; Krauss, S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Epidemiology and Infection 143(10), 2205-2212


Safeguarding biodiversity: what is perceived as working according to the conservation community?

Chapman, C. A.; DeLuycker, A.; Reyna-Hurtado, R. A.; Serio-Silva, J. C.; Smith, T. B.; Strier, K. B.; Goldberg, T. L.

Published Work | 2014 | Oryx 50(2), 302-307


Evolution and conservation of Central African biodiversity: priorities for future research and education in the Congo Basin and Gulf of Guinea

Anthony, N. M.; Atteke, C.; Bruford, M. W.; Dallmeier, F.; Freedman, A.; Hardy, O.; Ibrahim, B.; Jeffery, K. J.; Johnson, M.; Lahm, S. A.; Lepengue, N.; Lowenstein, J. H.; Maisels, F.; Mboumba, J.; Mickala, P.; Morgan, K.; Ntie, S.; Smith, T. B.; Sullivan, J. P.; Verheyen, E.; Gonder, M. K.

Published Work | 2014 | Biotropica 47(1), 6–17


Mapping migration in a songbird using high-resolution genetic markers

Ruegg, K. C.; Anderson, E. C.; Paxton, K. L.; Apkenas, V.; Lao, S.; Siegel, R. B.; DeSante, D. F.; Moore, F.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Molecular Ecology 23(23), 5726–5739


Prescriptive evolution to conserve and manage biodiversity

Smith, T.B; Kinnison, M.; Strauss, S.; Fuller, T.; Scott, P.

Published Work | 2014 | Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 45, 1.1–1.22


Coevolutionary patterns and diversification of avian malaria parasites in African Sunbirds (Family Nectariniidae)

Lauron, E. J.; Loiseau, C.; Bowie, R. C.; Spicer, G. S.; Smith, T. B.; Melo, M.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2014 | Parasitology 142(5), 635-647


Spatial and temporal patterns of frugivorous hornbill movements in Central Africa and their implications for rain forest conservation

Chasar, A.; Harrigan, R. J.; Holbrook, K. M.; Dietsch, T. V.; Fuller, T. L.; Wikelski, M.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Biotropica 46(6), 763–770


Applying evolutionary biology to address global challenges

Carroll, S. P.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Kinnison, M. T.; Bergstrom, C. T.; Denison, R. F.; Gluckman, P.; Smith, T. B.; Strauss, S. Y.; Tabashnik, B. E.

Published Work | 2014 | Science 346(6207)


Spatial conservation planning framework for assessing conservation opportunities in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

Giorgi, A. P.; Rovzar, C.; Davis, K. S.; Fuller, T.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S.; Smith, T. B.; Silveira, L. F.; Gillespie, S. W.

Published Work | 2014 | Applied Geography 53, 369–376


Integrative tracking methods elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of a migratory divide

Alvarado, A. H.; Fuller, T. L.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Ecology and Evolution 4(17), 3456–3469


Identifying areas with a high risk of human infection with the avian influenza (H7N9) virus in East Asia

Fuller, T. L.; Havers, F.; Xui, C.; Fang, L.; Cao, W.; Shu, Y.; Widdowson, M.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Journal of Infection 69(2), 174–181


A role for migration-linked genes in genomic islands in divergence of a songbird

Ruegg, K. C.; Anderson, E. C.; Boone, J.; Pouls, J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Molecular Ecology 23(19), 4757–4769


Diet selection is related to breeding status in two frugivorous hornbill species of Central Africa

Lamperti, A. M.; French, A. R.; Dierenfeld, E. S.; Fogiel, M. K.; Whitney, K. D.; Stauffer, D. J.; Stouffer, K. M.; Hardesty, B. D.; Clark, C. J.; Poulsen, J. R.; Wang, B.; Smith, T. B.; Parker, V. T.

Published Work | 2014 | Journal of Tropical Ecology 30(4), 273–290


New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the Northern Andes

Harrigan, R. J.; Sedan, R.; Chasar, A. C.; Chaves, J.; Nguyen, J. T.; Whitaker, A.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Evolutionary Applications 7(7), 799–811


Spillover of pH1N1 to swine in Cameroon: an investigation of risk factors

Larison, B.; Njabo, K. Y.; Chasar, A. C.; Fuller, T.; Harrigan, R.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | BMC Veterinary Research 10(55)



A continental risk assessment of West Nile virus under climate change

Harrigan, R. J.; Thomassen, H.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Global Change Biology 2014, 20 (8), 2417–2425


Putative human and avian risk factors for avian influenza virus infections in backyard poultry in Egypt

Sheta, B. M.; Fuller, T.; Larison, B.; Njabo, K. Y.; Ahmed, A. S.; Chasar, A.; Aziz, S. A.; Khidr, A. A.; Elbokl, M. M.; Habbak, L. Z.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2014 | Veterinary Microbiology 168(1), 208–213


Metapopulation dynamics enable persistence of Influenza A, including A/H5N1, in poultry

Hosseini, P. R.; Fuller, T.; Harrigan, R.; Zhao, D.; Arriola, C. S.; Gonzales, A.; Miller, M. J.; Xiao, X.; Smith, T. B.; Holland Jones, J.; Daszak, P.

Published Work | 2014 | PLoS ONE 8(12)


Effects of forest disturbance and habitat loss on avian communities in a Neotropical biodiversity hotspot

Duraes, R.; Carrasco, L.; Smith, T. B.; Karubian, J.

Published Work | 2013 | Biological Conservation 166, 203–211


Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human Monkeypox in response to climate change in Central Africa

Thomassen, H. A.; Fuller, T. L.; Asefi-Najafabady, S.; Shiplacoff, J. A.; Mulembakani, P. M.; Blumberg, S.; Johnston, S. C.; Kisalu, N. K.; Kinkela, T. L.; Fair, J. N.; Wolfe, N. D.; Shongo, R. L.; LeBreton, M.; Meyer, H.; Wright, L. L.; Muyembe, J.; Buermann, W.; Okitolonda, E.; Hensley, L. E.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Smith, T. B.; Rimoin, A. W.

Published Work | 2013 | PLoS ONE 8(7)


Novel statistical methods for integrating genetic and stable isotope data to infer individual-level migratory connectivity

Rundel, C. W.; Wunder, M. B.; Alvarado, A. H.; Ruegg, K. C.; Harrigan, R.; Schuh, A.; Kelly, J. F.; Siegal, R. B.; DeSante, D. F.; Smith, T. B.; Novembre, J.

Published Work | 2013 | Molecular Ecology 22(16), 4163–4176


Intraspecific morphological and genetic variation of common species predicts ranges of threatened ones

Fuller, T. L.; Thomassen, H. A.; Peralvo, M.; Wolfgang, B.; Mila, B.; Kieswetter, C. M.; Jarrin-V, P.; Cameron Devitt, S. E.; Mason, E.; Schweizer, R. M.; Schluneggar, J.; Chan, J.; Wang, O.; Schneider, C. J.; Pollinger, J. P.; Saatchi, S.; Graham, C. H.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2013 | Proceedings of the Royal Society Biology 280(1763)


Predicting bird song from space

Smith, T. B.; Harrigan, R. J.; Kirschel, A. N.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S.; Blumstein, D. T.; de Kort, S. R.; Slabbekoorn, H.

Published Work | 2013 | Evolutionary Applications 6(6), 865–874


Predicting hotspots for influenza virus reassortment

Fuller, T. L.; Gilbert, M.; Martin, V.; Cappelle, J.; Hosseini, P.; Njabo, K. Y.; Aziz, S. A.; Xiao, X.; Peter, D.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2013 | Emerging Infectious Diseases 19(4), 581–588


A preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor for protecting potential Baird’s tapir (Tapirus bairdii Gill, 1865) habitat in Southern Mexico

Mendoza, E.; Fuller, T. L.; Thomassen, H. A.; Buermann, W.; Ramirez-Mejia, D.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2013 | Integrative Zoology 8(1), 35–47


Feeding habits of culicine mosquitos in the Cameroon lowland forests based on stable isotopes and blood meal analyses

Njabo, K. Y.; Smith, T. B.; Yohannes, E.

Published Work | 2013 | Journal of Parasitology and Vector Biology 5, 6–12


Averting biodiversity collapse in tropical forest protected areas

Laurance, W. F.; Useche, D. C.; Rendeiro, J.; Kalka, M.; Bradshaw, C. J.; Smith, T. B.; et al.

Published Work | 2012 | Nature 489, 290–294


A national study of individuals who handle migratory birds for evidence of avian and swine influenza virus infections

Shafir, S. C.; Fuller, T.; Smith, T. B.; Rimoin, A. W.

Published Work | 2012 | Journal of Clinical Virology 54(4), 364–367


A trans-Amazonian screening of mtDNA reveals deep intraspecific divergence in forest birds and suggests a vast underestimation of species diversity

Milá, B.; Tavares, E. S.; Saldana, A. M.; Karubian, J.; Smith, T. B.; Baker, A. J.

Published Work | 2012 | PLoS ONE 7(7)


Pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus in Swine, Cameroon, 2010

Njabo, K. Y.; Fuller, T. L.; Chasar, A.; Pollinger, J. P.; Cattoli, G.; Terregino, C.; Monne, I.; Reynes, J.; Njouom, R.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2012 | Veterinary Microbiology 156, 189–192


The ecology of emerging infectious diseases in migratory birds: an assessment of the role of climate change and priorities for future research

Fuller, T.; Bensch, S.; Muller, I.; Novembre, J.; Perez-Tris, J.; Ricklefs, R. E.; Smith, T. B.; Waldenstrom, J.

Published Work | 2012 | EcoHealth 9, 80–88


Mating behavior drives seed dispersal by the Long-wattled Umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger

Karubian, J.; Duraes, R.; Storey, J. L.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2012 | Biotropica 44(5), 689–698


Origins and population history of a recent colonizer, the yellow warbler in Galapagos and Cocos Islands.

Chaves, J. A.; Parker, P. G.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2012 | Journal of Evolutionary Biology 25(3), 509–521


Host and habitat specialization of avian malaria in Africa

Loiseau, C.; Harrigan, R. J.; Robert, A.; Bowie, R. C.; Thomassen, H. A.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Molecular Ecology 21(2), 431–441


Genetic evidence for recent range fragmentation and severely restricted dispersal in the critically endangered Sierra Madre Sparrow, Xenospiza baileyi

Oliveras de Ita, A.; Oyama, K.; Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.; Milá, B.

Published Work | 2011 | Conservation Genetics 13, 283–291


Diversification in Adelomyia hummingbirds follows Andean uplift

Chaves, J. A.; Weir, J. T.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Molecular Ecology 20(18), 4564–4576


Testing alternative hypotheses for evolutionary diversification in an African songbird: Rainforest refugia versus ecological gradients

Kirschel, A. N.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Blumstein, D. T.; Cohen, R. E.; de Kort, S. R.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolution 65(11), 3162–3174


Rapid influenza A detection and quantitation in birds using a one-step real-time reverse transcriptase PCR and high resolution melting

Curd, E.; Pollinger, J.; Toffelmier, E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Journal of Virological Methods 176, 125–130


New avian Haemoproteus species (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from African birds, with a critique of the use of host taxonomic information in hemoproteid classification

Iezhova, T. A.; Dodge, M.; Sehgal, R. N.; Smith, T. B.; Valkiūnas, G.

Published Work | 2011 | Journal of Parasitology 97(4), 682–694


Evolutionary patterns of diversification in the Andean hummingbird genus Adelomyia

Freedman, A. H.; Buermann, W.; Mitchard, E. T.; DeFries, R. S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 60(2), 207–218


Patterns of divergence in the olive sunbird Cyanomitra olivacea (Aves: Nectariniidae) across the African rainforest–savanna ecotone

Smith, T. B.; Thomassen, H. A.; Freedman, A. H.; Sehgal, R. N.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S.; Pollinger, J.; Milá, B.; Pires, D.; Valkiūnas, G.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2011 | Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 103(4), 821–835




Mapping evolutionary process: a multi-taxa approach to conservation prioritization

Thomassen, H. A.; Fuller, T.; Buermann, W.; Milá, B.; Kieswetter, C.; Jarrín-V, P.; Cameron, S. E.; Mason, E.; Schweizer, R.; Schlunegger, J.; Chan, J.; Wang, O.; Peralvo, M.; Schneider, C. J.; Graham, C. H.; Pollinger, J. P.; Saatchi, S.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolutionary Applications 4(2), 397–413


Human-induced morphological shifts in an island lizard.

Marnocha, E.; Pollinger, J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolutionary Applications 4(2), 388–396


Evolutionary principles and their practical application

Hendry, A. P.; Kinnison, M. T.; Heino, M.; Day, T.; Smith, T. B.; Fitt, G.; Bergstrom, C.; Oakeshott, J.; Jørgensen, P. S.; Zalucki, M.; Southerton, S.; Sih, A.; Denison, R. F.; Carroll, S. P.

Published Work | 2011 | Evolutionary Application 4(2), 159–183


Nonspecific patterns of vector, host and avian malaria parasite associations in a Central African rainforest

Njabo, K. Y.; Cornel, A. J.; Bonneaud, C.; Toffelmier, E.; Sehgal, R. N.; Valkiunas, G.; Russell, A. F.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | Molecular Ecology 20(5), 1049–1061


Economic conditions predict prevalence of West Nile virus

Harrigan, R. J.; Thomassen, H. A.; Buermann, W.; Cummings, R. F.; Kahn, M. E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | PLoS ONE 5(11)


Using remote sensing to map the risk of human monkeypox virus in the Congo Basin

Fuller, T. H.; Thomassen, H. A.; Mulembakani, P. M.; Johnston, S. S.; Lloyd-Smith, J. O.; Kisalu, N. K.; Lutete, T. K.; Blumberg, S.; Fair, J. N.; Wolfe, N. D.; Shongo, R. L.; Formenty, P.; Meyer, H.; Wright, L. L.; Muhembe, J.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S. S.; Okitolonda, E.; Hensley, L.; Smith, T. B.; Rimoin, A. W.

Published Work | 2010 | EcoHealth 8(1), 14-25


Comparative avian biodiversity of five mountains in northern Cameroon and Bioko

Larison, B.; Smith, T. B.; Fotso, R.; McNiven, D.

Published Work | 2010 | Ostrich 71, 269–276


Projected changes in elevational distribution and flight performance of montane neotropical hummingbirds in response to climate change

Buermann, W.; Chaves, J. A.; Dudley, R.; Mcguire, J. A.; Smith, T. B.; Altshuler, D. L.

Published Work | 2010 | Global Change Biology 17(4), 1671–1680


Human impacts flatten rainforest-savanna gradient and reduce adaptive diversity in a rainforest bird

Freedman, A. H.; Buermann, W.; Mitchard, E. T.; DeFries, R. S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | PLoS ONE 5(9)


Spatially explicit predictions of blood parasites in a widely distributed African rainforest bird

Sehgal, R. N.; Buermann, W.; Harrigan, R. J.; Bonneaud, C.; Loiseau, C.; Chasar, A.; Sepil, I.; Valkiunas, G.; Iezhova, T.; Saatchi, S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | Procedings of the Royal Society B 278, 1025–1033


Spatial modelling and landscape-level approaches for visualizing intra-specific variation

Thomassen, H. A.; Cheviron, Z. A.; Freedman, A. H.; Harrigan, R. J.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | Molecular Ecology 19(17), 3532–3548


Genomic signals of diversification along ecological gradients in a tropical lizard

Freedman, A. H.; Thomassen, H. A.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | Molecular Ecology 19(17), 3773–3788


Destination-based seed dispersal homogenizes genetic structure of a tropical palm

Karubian, J.; Sork, V.; Roorda, T.; Duraes, R.; Smith, T.B.

Published Work | 2010 | Molecular Ecology 19(8), 1745–1753


Mapping the risk of avian influenza in wild birds in the U.S.

Fuller, T.; Saatchi, S.; Curd, E. E.; Toffelmier, E.; Thomassen, H.; Buermann, W.; DeSante, D. F.; Nott, M. P.; Saracco, J. F.; Ralph, C. J.; Alexander, J. D.; Pollinger, J. P.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | BMC Infectious Diseases 10(187)


Haemoproteus cyanomitrae sp. nov. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) from a Widespread African Songbird, the Olive Sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea

Iezhova, T. A.; Valkiūnas, G.; Loiseau, C.; Smith, T. B.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2010 | Journal of Parasitology 96(1), 136–143


Spatial variation of haemosporidian parasite infection in African rainforest bird species

Loiseau, C.; Iezhova, T. A.; Balkiunas, G.; Chasar, A.; Hutchinson, A.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2010 | Journal of Parasitology 96, 21–29


Modeling environmentally associated morphological and genetic variation in a rainforest bird, and its application to conservation prioritization

Thomassen, H. A.; Buermann, W.; Mila, B.; Graham, C. H.; Cameron, S. E.; Schneider, C. J.; Pollinger, J. P.; Saatchi, S.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2010 | Evolutionary Applications 3(1), 1–16



Characterization of novel microsatellite loci for Myzomela cardinalis and M. rubrata honeyeaters, and cross-amplification in other species

Thomassen, H. A.; Jones, K. C.; Pollinger, J. P.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Conservation Genetic Resources 2, 205–208


Development of beak polymorphism in the African seedcracker, Pyrenestes ostrinus

Clabaut, C.; Herrel, A.; Sanger, T.; Smith, T. B.; Calsbeek, A.

Published Work | 2009 | Evolution and Development 11(6), 636–646


Prevalence and diversity patterns of avian blood parasites in degraded African rainforest habitats

Chasar, A.; Loiseau, C.; Valkiūnas, G.; Iezhova, T.; Smith, T. B.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2009 | Molecular Ecology 18(19), 4121–4133


Coquillettidia (Culicidae, Diptera) mosquitoes as new natural vectors of avian malaria in Africa

Njabo, K. Y.; Cornel, A. J.; Sehgal, R. N.; Loiseau, C.; Buermann, W.; Harrigan, R. J.; Pollinger, J.; Valkiūnas, G.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Malaria Journal 8


Birdsong tuned to the environment: green hylia song varies with elevation, tree cover, and noise

Kirschel, A. N.; Blumstein, D. T.; Cohen, R. E.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.; Slabbekoorn, H.

Published Work | 2009 | Behavioral Ecology 29, 1089–1095


The prevalence of avian Plasmodium is higher in undisturbed tropical forests of Cameroon

Bonneaud, C.; Sepil, I.; Milá, B.; Buermann, W.; Pollinger, J.; Sehgal, R. N.; Valkiūnas, G.; Iezhova, T. A.; Saatchi, S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Journal of Tropical Ecology 25, 439–447


Divergence with gene flow and fine-scale phylogeographical structure in the wedge-billed woodcreeper, Glyphorynchus spirurus, a Neotropical rainforest bird

Milá, B.; Wayne, R. K.; Fitze, P.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Molecular Ecology 18(14), 2979–2995


Character displacement of song and morphology in African tinkerbirds

Kirschel, A. N.; Blumstein, D. T.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106, 8256–8261


Equating forest conservation with hornbill conservation

Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Conservation Biology 23(3), 782–783


Test of an adaptive hypothesis for egg speckling along an elevational gradient in a population of Mexican jays (Aphelocoma ultramarina)

Berg, E. C.; McCormack, J. E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | Journal of Avian Biology 40(4), 448–452


Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

Calsbeek, R.; Buermann, W.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2009 | BMC Evolutionary Biology 9(3)


New malaria parasites of the subgenus Novyella in African rainforest birds, with remarks on their high prevalence, classification and diagnostics

Valkiūnas, G.; Iezhova, T. A.; Loiseau, C.; Chasar, A.; Smith, T. B.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2008 | Parasitology Research 104, 1061–1077


Niche expansion leads to small-scale adaptive differentiation along an elevation gradient in a medium-sized passerine bird

McCormack, J. E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2008 | Proceedings of the Royal Society B 275(1647), 2155–2164


Modeling the effects of anthropogenic habitat change on savanna snake invasions into African rainforest

Freedman, A. H.; Buermann, W.; LeBreton, M.; Chirio, L.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2008 | Conservation Biology 23(1), 81-92


New species of haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporidia) from African rainforest birds, with remarks on their classification

Valkiūnas, G.; Iezhova, T. A.; Loiseau, C.; Chasar, A.; Smith, T. B.; Sehgal, R. N.

Published Work | 2008 | Parasitology Research 103, 1213–1228


Integrating paleoecology and genetics of bird populations in two sky island archipelagos

McCormack, J. E.; Bowen, B. S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2008 | BMC Biology 6(28)


Ecomorphology of migratory and sedentary populations of the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata)

Milá, B.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2008 | Condor 110(2), 335–344


The importance of conserving evolutionary processes

Smith, T. B.; Grether, G.

Published Work | 2008


Advances in sexual selection theory: insights from tropical avifauna.

Tori, W. P.; Duraes, R.; Ryder, T. B.; Anciaes, M.; Karubian, J.; Macedo, R. H.; Uy, J. A.; Parker, P. G.; Smith, T. B.; Stein, A. C.; Webster, M. S.; Blake, J. G.; Loiselle, B. A.

Published Work | 2008 | Neotropical Ornithology 19, 151–163


Preface to the special issue: Evolutionary change in human-altered environments

Smith, T. B.; Bernatchez, L.

Published Work | 2007 | Molecular Ecology 17(1), 1–8


Recent postglacial range expansion drives the rapid diversification of a songbird lineage in the genus Junco

Milá, B.; McCormack, J. E.; Castenada, G.; Wayne, R. K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2007 | Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274(1626), 2653–2660



Evolutionary consequences of human disturbance in a rainforest bird species from Central Africa

Smith, T. B.; Mila, B.; Grether, G. F.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Sepil, I.; Buermann, W.; Saatchi, S.; Pollinger, J. P.

Published Work | 2007 | Molecular Ecology 17(1), 58–71


The role of geography and ecology in shaping the phylogeography of the speckled hummingbird (Adelomyia melanogenys) in Ecuador

Chaves, J. A.; Pollinger, J. P.; Smith, T. B.; LeBuhn, G.

Published Work | 2007 | Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 43(3), 795–807


Hunting of mammals reduced seed removal and dispersal of the Afrotropical tree, Antrocaryon klaineanum (Anacardiaceae).

Wang, B. C.; Sork, V. L.; Leong, M. T.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2007 | Biotropica 39(3), 340–347



Multiple paternity and sperm storage lead to increased genetic diversity in Anolis lizards

Calsbeek, R.; Bonneaud, C.; Prabhu, S.; Manoukis, N.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2007 | Evolutionary Ecology Research 9, 495–503


Postglacial population expansion drives the evolution of long-distance migration in a songbird

Milá, B.; Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2006 | Evolution 60(11), 2403–2409


Speciation and rapid phenotypic differentiation in the yellow-rumped warbler (Dendroica coronata) complex

Milá, B.; Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2006 | Molecular Ecology 16(1), 159–173


Divergence in mating signals correlates with ecological variation in the migratory songbird, Swainson’s thrush (Catharus ustulatus)

Ruegg, K.; Slabbekorn, H.; Clegg, S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2006 | Molecular Ecology 15(11), 1487–1494


Elevational zonation and the phylogenetic relationships of the Henicorhina wood-wrens

Dingle, C.; Lovette, I. J.; Canaday, C.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2006 | The Auk 123(1), 119–134


Patterns of variation in MHC class II B loci of the little greenbul (Andropadus virens) with comments on MHC evolution in birds

Aguilar, A.; Edwards, S. V.; Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2005 | Journal of Heredity 97(2), 133–142


Molecular evidence for host specificity of parasitic nematode microfilariae in some African rainforest birds

Sehgal, R. N.; Jones, H. I.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Molecular Ecology 14(13), 3977–3988


Combining isotopic and genetic markers to identify breeding origins of migrant birds

Kelly, J.; Ruegg, K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Ecological Applications 15(5), 1487–1494


A comparison of variation between a MHC pseudogene and microsatellite loci of the little greenbul (Androparus virens)

Aguilar, A.; Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2005 | BMC Evolutionary Biology 5 (47)


Current and historical factors influencing patterns of species richness and turnover of birds in the Gulf of Guinea highlands.

Smith, C. H.; Smith, T. B.; Languy, M.

Published Work | 2005 | Journal of Biogeography 32, 1371–1384


Temporal and spatial patterns of macaw abundance in the Ecuadorian Amazon

Karubian, J.; Fabara, J.; Yunes, D.; Jorgenson, J. P.; Romo, D.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Condor 107(3), 617–626


Isolation of polymorphic tetranucleotide microsatellite markers for the black-bellied seedcracker (Pyresnestes ostrinus)

Delaney, K. S.; Pires, D.; Holder, K.; Bardeleben, C.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Molecular Ecology Notes 5(4), 774–776


Further observations on the blood parasites of birds in Uganda

Valkiunas, G.; Sehgal, R. N.; Iezhova, T. A.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Journal of Wildlife Diseases 41(3), 580–587


Variation in scale numbers is consistent with ecologically based natural selection acting within and between lizard species

Calsbeek, R.; Knouft, J. H.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Evolutionary Ecology 20, 377–392


Blood parasites of some West African rainforest birds

Sehgal, R. N.; Jones, H. I.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Journal of Veterinary Medical Science 67(3), 295–301


Leucocytozoon (Apicomplexa: Leucocytozoide) from West African birds, with descriptions of two species

Jones, H. I.; Sehgal, R. N.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Journal of Parasitology 91(2), 397–401


Molecular genetic approaches to linking breeding and overwintering areas in five neotropical migrant passerines

Smith, T. B.; Clegg, S. M.; Kimura, M.; Ruegg, K.; Milá, B.; Lovette, I.

Published Work | 2005 | Birds of Two Worlds: The Ecology and Evolution of Migration 223-231


Importance of body size in determining dominance hierarchies among diverse tropical frugivores

French, A.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2005 | Biotropic 37(1), 95–100


Evaluating the divergence-with-gene-flow model in natural population: the importance of ecotones in rainforest speciation

Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.; Girman, D.; Bruford, M. W.

Published Work | 2005 | University of Chicago Press: Chicago, Chicago, USA, 148–165


Putting process on the map: Why ecotones are important for preserving biodiversity

Smith, T. B.; Saatchi, S.; Graham, C.; Slabbekoorn, H.; Spicer, G.

Published Work | 2005 | Phylogeny and Conservation


Testing alternative mechanisms of evolutionary divergence in an African rainforest passerine bird

Smith, T. B.; Calsbeek, R.; Wayne, R. K.; Holder, K. H.; Pires, D.; Bardeleben, C.

Published Work | 2004 | Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18(2), 257–268


Limited utility of mtDNA markers for determining connectivity among breeding and overwintering locations in three neotropical migrant birds

Lovette, I. J.; Clegg, S. M.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2004 | Conservation Biology 18(1), 156–166


Ocean currents mediate evolution in island lizards

Calsbeek, R.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2003 | Nature 426, 552–555


Nesting biology of a female Long-wattled Umbrellabird Cephalopterus penduliger in north-western Ecuador

Karubian, J.; Casteñeda, G.; Freile, J. F.; Salazar, R. T.; Santander, T.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2003 | Bird Conservation International 13(4), 351–360


Stable isotopes as indicators of altitudinal distributions and movements in an Ecuadorean hummingbird community

Hobson, K. A.; Wassenaar, L. I.; Milá, B.; Lovette, I.; Dingle, C.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2003 | Oecologia 136, 302–308



A call for feather sampling

Smith, T. B.; Marra, P. P.; Webster, M. S.; Lovette, I.; Gibbs, L.; Holmes, R. T.; Rohwer, S.

Published Work | 2003 | The Auk 120(1), 218–221


Long-distance movements of frugivorous rainforest hornbills

Holbrook, K. M.; Smith, T. B.; Hardesty, B. D.

Published Work | 2002 | Ecography 25(6), 745–749


Phylogeographic approaches to assessing demographic connectivity between breeding and overwintering regions in a Nearctic-Neotropical warbler (Wilsonia pusilla)

Kimura, M.; Clegg, S. M.; Lovette, I. J.; Holder, K. R.; Girman, D. J.; Milá, B.; Wade, P.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Molecular Ecology 11(9), 1605–1616



A comparative analysis of PCR-based detection methods for avian malaria

Richard, F. A.; Sehgal, R. N.; Jones, H. I.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Journal of Parasitology 88(4), 819–822


Closing the seed dispersal loop

Wang, B. C.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17(8), 379–386


Birdsong and sound transmission: The benefits of reverberations

Slabbekoorn, H.; Ellers, J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Condor 104(3), 564–573


Not as the crow flies: a historical explanation for circuitous migration in Swainson’s thrush (Catharus ustulatus)

Ruegg, K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Proceedings of the Royal Society, London 269(1498), 1375–1381


Bird song, ecology and speciation

Slabbekoorn, H.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 357(1420), 493-503


Differential resource use by primates and hornbills: implications for seed dispersal

Poulsen, J. R.; Clark, C. J.; Conner, E. F.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2002 | Ecology 83(1), 228–240


The role of arboreal seed dispersal groups on the seed rain of a lowland tropical forest

Clark, C. J.; Poulsen, J. R.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2001 | Biotropica 33(4), 606–620


Seed dispersal by a primate community in the Dja Reserve, Cameroon

Poulsen, J. R.; Clark, C. J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2001 | Journal of Tropical Ecology 17(6), 787–808


The behavioural ecology of the island fox (Urocyon littoralis)

Roemer, G. W.; Smith, D. A.; Garcelon, D. K.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 2001 | Journal of Zoology 2001, 255(1), 1–14


Host specificity and prevalence of Trypanosoma in the African avifauna: a molecular approach

Sehgal, R. N.; Jones, H. I.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2001 | Molecular Ecology 10(9), 2319–2327


[Commentary] Biodiversity hotspots and beyond: the need for preserving environmental transitions

Smith, T. B.; Kark, S.; Schneider, C. J.; Wayne, R. K.; Moritz, C.

Published Work | 2001 | Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16(8), 431


Seasonal variation in the feeding ecology of the grey-cheeked mangabay (Lophecebus albigena) in Cameroon

Poulsen, J. R.; Clark, C. J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2001 | American Journal of Primatology 54(2), 91–105


Breeding characteristics of the Akohekohe on east Maui

VanGelder, E.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2001 | Studies in Avian Biology 22, 194–201



Genetic evidence for the effect of a postglacial population expansion on the phylogeography of a North American songbird

Milá, B.; Girman, D.; Kimura, M.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2000 | Proceedings of the Royal Society 267, 1033–1040


Reaching new adaptive peaks: Evolution of bill size polymorphism in an African finch

Smith, T. B.; Girman, D.

Published Work | 2000 | Adaptive Genetic Variation in the Wild



Diversification of rainforest faunas: An integrated molecular approach

Moritz, C.; Patton, J.; Schneider, C.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 2000 | Annual Reviews of Ecology and Systematics 31, 533–563


A test of alternative models of diversification in tropical rainforest: ecological gradients vs. rainforest refugia

Schneider, C.; Smith, T. B.; Larison, B.; Moritz, C.

Published Work | 1999 | roceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 96(24), 13869–13873


Biotic Surveys of Bioko and Rio Muni, Equatorial Guinea, 1999

Larison, B.; Smith, T.B.; Girman, D.; Stauffer, D.; Mila, B.; Drewes, R.C.; Griswold, C.E.; Vindum, J.V.; Ubick, D., O'Keefe, K.; Nguema, J., Henwood, L.

Progress Report | 1999


Ecology and speciation

Orr, M. R.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1998 | Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13(12), 502–506


Habitat use and resource tracking by African Ceratogymna hornbills: implications for seed dispersal and forest conservation

Whitney, K.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1998 | American Conservation 1(2), 107–117


Seed dispersal by Ceratogymna hornbills in the Dja Reserve of Cameroon

Whitney, K.; Fogiel, M.; Lamperti, A.; Holbrook, K.; Stauffer, D.; Hardesty, B.D.; Parker, V.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1998 | Journal of Tropical Ecology 14(3), 351–371


A role for ecotones in generating rainforest biodiversity

Smith, T. B.; Wayne, R. K.; Girman, D.; Bruford, M. W.

Published Work | 1997 | Science 276(5320), 1855–1857



An overview of the issues

Mace, G.; Smith, T. B.; Bruford, M. W.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 1996 | Molecular Genetic Approaches in Conservation 1-21


Evolutionary significance of resource polymorphisms in fish, amphibians and birds

Smith, T. B.; Skúlason, S.

Published Work | 1996 | Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 27, 111–133


The ecology of resource polymorphisms in vertebrates: a reply

Skúlason, S.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1996 | Trends in Ecology and Evolution 11(1), 26


Resource polymorphisms in vertebrates

Skulason, S.; Smith, T.B.

Published Work | 1995 | Trends in Ecology & Evolution 10(9), 366-370


Evolutionary consequences of extinctions in populations of a Hawaiian honeycreeper

Smith, T. B.; Freed, L. A.; Lepson, J. K.; Carothers, J. H.

Published Work | 1995 | Conservation Biology 9(1), 107–113


The preservation of process: the missing element of conservation programs

Smith, T. B.; Bruford, M. W.; Wayne, R. K.

Published Work | 1993 | Biodiversity Letters 1(6), 164–167



Ecological and evolutionary significance of a third bill form in the polymorphic finch Pyrenestes ostrinus

Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1993 | Birds and the African Environment: Proceedings of the Eighth Pan-African Ornithological Congress 268



A double-billed dilemma

Smith, T.B.

Published Work | 1991 | Natural History 100(1), 14-21


Patterns of morphological and geographic variation in trophic bill morphs of the African finch Pyrenestes

Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1990 | Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 41(4), 381–414


Resource use by bill morphs of an African finch: Evidence for intraspecific competition

Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1990 | Ecology 71(4), 1246–1257




Portable device for measuring seed-hardness

Smith, R. J.; Smith, T. B.

Published Work | 1989 | Journal of Field Ornithology 60(1), 56–59



Cracking the problem of bill size

Smith, T. B.; Smith, P. B.

Published Work | 1987 | Riverbanks 5, 2–8


Does bill size polymorphism affect courtship song characteristics in the African finch Pyrenestes ostrinus?

Slabbekoorn, H.; Smith, T.

Published Work | Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 71(4), 737–753